Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür

Image Source: Public Domain

About Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür

Lifespan: 1304-1332 A.D

Reign Years: 1328 – 1329 and 1329 – 1332 A.D

Given Name: Borjigin Toq-Temur

Reign Name: Wenzong

Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür – Yuan Dynasty

Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur, also known as Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, was a ruler of the Yuan dynasty. He was also honored as the Mongol Empire’s 12th Great Khan. But because of its division, not everyone considered this.

Tugh Temur ruled from 1328 to 1329 before he abdicated to have his brother, Khutughtu Khan Kusala, take the throne. Yet later, after his brother’s death, he once again ruled from late 1329 to 1332.

He was knowledgeable in history and the Chinese language. He was even a credible calligrapher, poet, as well as a painter.

Yet during his rule, his actual power was greatly limited by El Temur. But despite this, Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur is well-known for his cultural contributions.

The Early Life of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temur

Tugh Temur was Khayishan’s second son to a Tangut female and was the younger brother of Kusala. When his father died, his younger brother, Ayurbarwada, took the throne and leadership.

However, both he and his brother were kicked out of the central government by Dagi, his grandmother. Other Khunggirad groups, including Temuder, aided her. That’s because they weren’t mothered by the Kunggirad Khatuns.

When Khayishan, Tugh Temur’s father, suddenly died, his younger brother, Ayurbarwada, inherited the emperor’s throne in 1311.

After Shidibala (Ayurbarwada’s son) ascended in 1320, Tugh Temur was exiled to Hainan. When Shidibala died due to assassination, Yesun Temur took over his post as the new ruler. During his rule, conditions somehow improved.

He was given the Prince of Huai title then relocated to Jiankang before moving to Jiangling.

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Reign of Jayaatu Khan

During Emperor Wenzong of Yuan’s four-year reign, 24 princely titles were given out. Out of the nine first-ranked princes, seven of them weren’t descendants of Kublai Khan.

When it came to the imperial grants, these were restored in 1329. However, confiscated properties from Shangdu loyalists were given to the officials and princes who contributed to the restoration.

In addition, action was taken to acquire recognition from other Mongol Khanates. It was necessary to be accepted as their supposed suzerain. There, Tugh sent out three princes that would offer lavish gifts to the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, and Chagatai Khanate.

He eventually sent Naimantai, Muqali’s descendant, to Eljigidey. He was someone who greatly supported Kusala. This was done to offer gifts and the royal seal to appease his anger.

Luckily, Tugh was successful and saw favorable responses. With that, he was able to re-establish his domain over the Mongol empire for himself. Of course, he maintained a closer relationship with the western Khanates.

The Administration and Court

The four-year reign of Emperor Wenzong of Yuan was mostly ruled by both El Temur and Bayan from the Merkid. It was a clan or tribe of Mongols during that time.

They were the people most responsible for allowing the restoration to be possible. These individuals acquired honor and power that was never reached by other Yuan officials. With that, they established their power bases in the military and bureaucracy.

Such acts somehow overshadowed the presence of Emperor Wenzong of Yuan.

Still, the emperor honored his father’s previous ministers, giving them honorific titles. As for the restoration’s participants, they were given mostly important positions during his administration.


Because of the war against loyalists and the suppression of uprisings by the ethnic minorities, added costs were incurred. And with the natural disasters that happened, Tugh Temur and his government’s resources were drastically taxed.

The battle at Yunnan commenced without signs of success. Yet Aratnashiri, the imperial general, defeated the Lolos and other mountaineers while also killing their chiefs.

The campaign cost a lot. So Tugh Temur, who focused on a luxurious life, hardly paid any interest in this campaign. Due to the conduct of Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, a lot of people became discontented.

Yelu Temur, Ananda’s son who tried acquiring the throne in 1307, plotted to displace Tugh Temur. The attempt was unsuccessful since they were discovered then duly punished for this.

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Later Life and Death of Jayaatu Khan

Since the bureaucracy was ruled over by El Temur, certain elements’ influence was limited on the government. Then six months before Tugh Temur’s death, El Temur completely controlled the academy in early 1332.

On his deathbed, Tugh Temur expressed his guilt for what he did to Kusala, his older brother. With that, he shared his intentions to pass the throne and title of emperor to Toghon Temur.