The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of china, Its reign has officially started at 206 B.C and finished at 220 A.D.
The Dynasty was founded after the fall of the Qin dynasty (the first imperial dynasty of china), by the first emperor of Han, which was the rebel leader called “Liu Bang”, also known as emperor “Gaozu”.
The Han dynasty period was considered as a golden age for the Chinese people, and has affected china till this day, china has flourished economically during the Han period, and established the Silk road which was connected far west to the Roman empire, also poetry philosophy and literature was growing during emperor “Wu” period (141 – 87 B.C).
the period of the Han dynasty is divided to two,
Western Han (206 BC – 9 A.D) and Eastern Han (25 – 220 A.D), it was interrupt in the middle by “Wang Mang” which was the nephew of empress dowager (“mother of the emperor”) “Wang zhengjun”.
“Wang Mang” has announced that “mandate of Heaven” has call for the end of the Han dynasty, so he has established the “Xin Dynasty”, “Wang Mang” has ruled china between the years 9 – 23 A.D, until he was killed by rebels who forced their way into the weiyang palace.
During the western Han dynasty, there were many battles between the Chinese Han people, to the nomadic “xiongnu”, who residence at the northern border of china,
The capitol of the western Han was Chang’an (Today Xian),
After the fall of “Wang Mang”, Emperor Gengshi of han, tried to reestablish the Han dynasty, but was assassinated by the rebel group called “Red Eyebrow”
Later on during the Eastern Han period, the capitol has moved east to Luoyang by emperor “Guangwu” who establish the Han dynasty again at the east of china,
“Guangwu” has forced the Rebels to surrender and execute their leader, as well as wage war against regional warlords who considered themselves as emperors.
Over the years of the eastern Han period, there have been many political issues, when the eunuchs of the imperial court were more involved in the politics,
The fall of the Han dynasty has started as a plot of the warlord “Yuan Shao” and general “He Jin” who wanted to overthrow the eunuchs, they have besieged the capitol Luoyang, and when breached, killed many eunuchs,
“emperor Shao” has fled along with his brother from the capitol to the former capitol “chang’an”, and eventually was poisoned by general “Dong zhuo” after Luoyang was burned to the ground by “Yuan Shao”.
Eventually the empire has been split to three conflict states, and “The three kingdom period” has started.