The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912 A.D.)

The Qing dynasty was the last imperial dynasty that has ruled China, the dynasty was founded at 1644 A.D, after the fall of Beijing to a peasant rebel host, led by “Li Zicheng”, he has established the Shun dynasty, but were conquered less then a year later by the Qing dynasty.

The Qing dynasty was founded by non-Han Chinese, The Jurchen who have lived in Manchuria and were vassals to the great Ming empire before, “Nurachi” have started to unite the clans in Manchuria and by 1635 A.D. pushed the Ming dynasty out of the southern land in Manchuria.

Although The founder of the Dynasty was “Emperor Nurachi” who was the 1st emperor of the Qing dynasty, the 1st Emperor who ruled china properly and has claimed the mandate of heaven was Emperor Shunzhi.

after “Hong Taiji” (The 2nd Qing Emperor) died at 1643 A.D, without naming an heir, a committee of Manchu princes has chosen who will be the next emperor of Qing, and they chose 5 years old Fulin which is also known as “Emperor Shunzhi”, in the beginning of his reign, the real power lay in the hands of Price Dorgon, who was the 14th son of Nurachi and the Regent of the young emperor.

The control in the country by prince Dorgon lasted until the day he died in 1650 A.D, when Emperor Shunzhi has started to reign by himself, he died from smallpox at 1661 A.D.

His own son “Emperor Kangxi” has proceeded him, and has completed the conquest of china from the Ming empire, Emperor Kangxi is considered as one of the best Emperor in China’s history, and his reign lasted 61 years, The period of Emperor Kangxi was a zenith era for china, Socially, economically and military.

Emperor Kangxi has established political relations with some of the Mongol tribes, he has conquered Taiwan, and helped Tibet and outer Mongolia against their enemy which eventually led them to incorporate with the Chinese Empire.

After Emperor Kangxi death at 1722 A.D, his fourth son took the Throne as “Emperor Yongzheng” who ruled china for 13 years, until 1735 A.D, when he died, and his own son “Emperor Qianlong” succeeded him.

In The Period of Emperor Qianlong china has marked its highest power during the Qing dynasty, Qianlong has proved to be a great leader, he even led some battles himself against the Mongols, and suppressed revolts in southern china, he had his mind to conquer Burma and Vietnam, but the forces he sent there were not successful.

In 1796 A.D, he stepped down from the throne and declared “Emperor Jiaqing” (his son) as his successor, even though he still held all the power, he didn’t want to rule more than his grandfather emperor Kangxi.

In the last year of his reign the white lotus society rebellion has started and lasted for 8 years, which in the end of that period the Qing dynasty had a drastic change, Emperor Qianlong died at 1799 A.D.

During the 19th century in china, many problems started to rise, the Qing dynasty control has weaken, economic stagnation, and a massive population growth has led to starvation.